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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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Desire for Parenthood in Context of Other Life Aspirations Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Young Adults

There were three main findings. First, while lesbian/gay individuals were less likely than heterosexual participants to express desire for parenthood, desires in the other future domains did not vary across sexual orientation. Lesbian/gay participants were as likely as heterosexual individuals to desire marriage, friendships, and community connections, as well as career and economic success. Results for expectations were, however, very different. Lesbian/gay participants were less likely than heterosexual individuals to expect that they would marry, become parents, feel connected to a community, achieve meaningful careers, live in their ideal housing, or that they would attain financial stability. Overall, for lesbian/gay young adults, low parenthood aspirations were part of a general pattern of low expectations (though not reduced desires) across a number of life domains.

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Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents

Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy.

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The Desire for Parenthood: Gay Men Choosing to Become Parents Through Surrogacy

I explore how gay men understand their desire to have children and what frames their parenthood experiences. Most of the men in this study did not develop a “procreative consciousness” as a result of sexual and fertility-related events. The majority also initially accepted the notion that homosexuality was synonymous with childlessness. Awareness of the possibilities for parenthood emerged over time through the promotional activities of surrogacy agencies, through media, peers, and relationship partners. Additionally, men played with the symbols of kinship to negotiate and obscure biogenetic paternity.

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