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Men Having Babies Research Article Library

MHB is collaborating with researchers worldwide to encourage and support research to contribute to our understanding of surrogacy and gay parenting. In addition, the effective dissemination of research findings is of vital importance. Below you will find a library of exiting academic studies and reviews. They have been assembled for the most part by the International Surrogacy Research Group led by Dr. Nicola Carone of the University of Pavia, Italy. Also assisting in the effort are Dr. Henny Bos (University of Amsterdam), Dr. Ellen Lorenceau (University Paris Diderot, CRPMS), Dr. Luis Moya-Albiol (Universitat de València), Dr. Loes van Rijn - van Gelderen (University of Amsterdam), and Dr. Mary Riddle (The Pennsylvania State University).

Please feel free to send us suggestions for additional studies to include in the library.

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A limited market: the recruitment of gay men as surrogacy clients by the infertility industry in the USA

I investigate the surrogacy industry in the USA to ask how welcome gay men are in this market. A minority of gay-friendly clinics and agencies, which cluster geographically, actively recruit gay men, creating a limited but niche market. The unequal recruitment of gay men as infertility clients reflects how normative ideas about gender, sexuality and social class are reproduced in the infertility industry. This, in turn, may impact gay men's procreative consciousness and decision-making about parenting, and exacerbate inequalities around their access to intentional genetic parenthood.

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Italian gay fathers' experiences of transnational surrogacy and their relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth

This study aims to explore the experience of transnational surrogacy and the relationship with the surrogate pre- and post-birth in Italian gay father families. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis indicated that three interrelated themes could be helpful for understanding the gay fathers' experience of their geographical distance from the surrogate: the perceived loss of control over the pregnancy; the surrogate as a person who facilitates the fathers' feelings of being emotionally connected to their developing child; the surrogate as an ‘aunty’ who, along with her family, maintains a relationship with the fathers.

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Intended parents’ motivations and information and support needs when seeking extraterritorial compensated surrogacy

This study aimed to explore: how those considering or undertaking extraterritorial surrogacy reach their decision; what other avenues they have considered and tried to have children; their sources of information and support; and perceptions of how others view their decision. Surrogacy-related information was mostly sourced online and from other parents through surrogacy. Few sought information from a local general practitioner or IVF clinic and those who did reported IVF clinic staff were significantly (P < 0.001) more likely than other groups to communicate negative reactions to their decision to seek surrogacy. The apparent negative attitudes to cross-border surrogacy among health professionals warrants further research into health professionals’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes relating to surrogacy.

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The long-term experiences of surrogates: relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements

This study examined the contact arrangements and relationships between surrogates and surrogacy families and whether these outcomes differed according to the type of surrogacy undertaken. Surrogates' motivations for carrying out multiple surrogacy arrangements were also examined, and surrogates' psychological health was assessed. Surrogates were happy with their level of contact in the majority of arrangements and most were viewed as positive experiences. Few differences were found according to surrogacy type. The primary motivation given for multiple surrogacy arrangements was to help couples have a sibling for an existing child. Most surrogates showed no psychological health problems at the time of data collection.

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Secrecy, disclosure and everything in-between: decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy

This study examined families where children lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their parents. Despite a shift in professional attitudes towards openness, about half of the children conceived by egg donation and nearly three-quarters of those conceived by donor insemination remained unaware that the person they know as their mother or father is not, in fact, their genetic parent. By contrast, almost all the surrogacy parents had told their child how they were born. A majority of parents who planned never to tell their child about their conception had told at least one other person. 

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