Given the societal, political, and cultural divide on the topic of same-gender parenting, there is a need for a stronger body of evidence that accurately identifies outcomes for children and adolescents of gay and lesbian parents. In addition, attention should be paid to the validity of the argument that parenting capabilities are gender-exclusive and children need both a mother and a father. The present study was a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to investigate the effects of parental gender and sexual identity on child and adolescent outcomes. An electronic search of relevant databases resulted in 33 unpublished and published studies (N of children = 5,272) that included a comparison of same-gender or different-gender parents and their children. Results indicated several significant findings for the parent-child relationship and child gender role behavior outcomes. Other outcomes, including child sexual orientation, cognitive abilities, psychological adjustment, and gender identity, were not moderated by parent gender or sexual orientation. Implications for future research are discussed.