Methods: Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression, and marital quality. Children’s adjustment was assessed at ages 3, 7, and 10 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).

Conclusions: The absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be more problematic for children than the absence of a genetic link.