Cross-sectional study.


Participants were 40 gay couples and 76 heterosexual couples who had domestic surrogacy in the United Kingdom (UK) (n = 38) or international surrogacy in the United States (n = 58) or Asia (20). Most (75%) of the children were aged <4 years.


Online surveys containing open-ended and multiple-choice questions.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Experiences of finding a surrogate, relationship with the surrogate, and disclosure to the child were examined among UK parents who had undergone surrogacy in the UK, United States, or India/Thailand.


The specific country where couples conducted their surrogacy arrangement (i.e. United States, UK, or Thailand/India) was associated with how involved they were in the pregnancy and their contact with the surrogate over time. Limitations of the study include use of survey methodology and that the representativeness of the sample is not known.